2015/22 LEM Working Paper Series

Gender Gap in Patenting Activities: Evidence from Iran

Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi and Seyed Kamran Bagheri
Gender gap, Patent, Iran, Technological change
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This study investigated gender differences in innovative behaviour and technological change in Iran by using data on patents granted to Iranians in Iran and their demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis was used to compare gender involvement and cooperation in patent activities. In addition, an econometric analysis was employed to investigate the statistical significance of the gender differences. The results showed that although females have participated much less than males, the percentage of female inventors has an upward trend over the study period; that might be mainly due to higher women’s propensity to engage in team-collaboration that has increased over time. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the probability of female involvement in innovative activities was significantly higher when a state-run company or university was involved while it was lower in the case of private institutions involvement. Compared to other technological sectors, in IPC section D (TEXTILES; PAPER) there was a higher male inter-gender collaboration in favour of significantly higher female participation and contribution. Moreover, after section D, in IPC section A (HUMAN NECESSITIES) the probability of female presence as patentees was higher compared to other sectors. Moreover, unequal geographical distribution among provinces was detected. Potential factors contributing to this disparity remain an open question for further studies.
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